What is the best way to treat skin breakdown around a stoma do to the colostomy appliance?
First, make sure your appliance fits well. Make sure it is not too big (#1 cause of skin breakdown). The opening should be not much larger than your stoma. If that is not the culprit, try a different adhesive. The best way to treat some of these problems is to correct the issue. We often switch to Stomahesive powder in cases where the skin is really broken down. Make sure it is not due to Candida because medication is needed in that case.
Although open stomata are essential for photosynthesis, they also expose the plant to the risk of losing water through transpiration. Some 90% of the water taken up by a plant is lost in transpiration.
Open stomata also provide an opening through which bacteria can invade the interior of the leaf. However, guard cells have receptors that can detect the presence of molecules associated with bacteria called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). LPS and flagellin are examples. When the guard cells detect these PAMPs, ABA mediates closure of the stoma and thus close the door to bacterial entry.
So, to sum this up, bacteria would get in and the PAMPs wouldn´t be able to stop all of them to infect the plant, or it would be very expensive to the plant to have these deffenses. And a lot of water would be lost.
Hope this helps,
A stoma is an artificial opening on your abdomen to collect waste (either feces or urine). Stomas to collect faeces connect to your bowel (intestine); stomas to collect urine connect to your ureter (the tube that carries urine from your bladder to your kidneys). The waste products are collected in a reservoir bag, or pouch, on the outside of your body.
A stoma is a bud-like structure that is formed when your surgeon stitches the opening of your bowel or ureter to the skin on your abdomen. A bag or pouch can then be connected to your stoma to collect waste (faeces or urine) outside your body.
Any operation that creates a stoma ends with '-ostomy'. For example, a colostomy involves the large bowel (colon), an ileostomy involves the small bowel (ileum) and a urostomy involves the urinary tract.
A stoma can be either temporary or permanent, depending on the type of operation you have and how much of your bowel or urinary tract has been removed. The size and shape of your stoma will also depend on the type of operation you have had.
The main types of stoma are:
ileostomy - an opening from the small bowel, to allow faeces to leave the body without passing through the large bowel
colostomy - an opening from the large bowel, to allow faeces to leave the body without passing through the anus
urostomy - an opening from the ureters, to allow urine to leave the body without passing through the bladder
1. End colostomy. The functioning end of the intestine (the section of bowel that remains connected to the upper gastrointestinal tract) is brought out onto the surface of the abdomen, forming the stoma by cuffing the intestine back on itself and suturing the end to the skin. A stoma is an artificial opening created to the surface of the body. The surface of the stoma is actually the lining of the intestine, usually appearing moist and pink. The distal portion of bowel (now connected only to the rectum) may be removed, or sutured closed and left in the abdomen. An end colostomy is usually a permanent ostomy, resulting from trauma, cancer or another pathological condition.
2. Loop colostomy. This colostomy is created by bringing a loop of bowel through an incision in the abdominal wall. The loop is held in place outside the abdomen by a plastic rod slipped beneath it. An incision is made in the bowel to allow the passage of stool through the loop colostomy. The supporting rod is removed approximately 7-10 days after surgery, when healing has occurred that will prevent the loop of bowel from retracting into the abdomen. A loop colostomy is most often performed for creation of a temporary stoma to divert stool away from an area of intestine that has been blocked or ruptured
ok if you remember biology the reason it is so thick is so water does not evaporate out of the cells but only thru the stoma. and it helps in keeping the plants rigid also with the help of turgur pressure which is basically water under pressure in the cell.
Can a mesh placed to repair a hernia get infected because of close proximity to an exsisting stoma?
You didn't provide much information. Where is the incision that is herniating? You did not say whether the doctor was refusing to do the surgery, or just warning of the risk? The larger the piece of mesh, the riskier - because if it gets infected, every bit of the mesh has to come out. Your doctor is warning you of the risk, but really you don't have a choice, do you?
In any event, mesh infection is a very serious consequence, and my layman's guess is that yes, any aperture near the mesh that could permit the entry of bacteria is a way for the mesh to get infected. It is just the nature of having a foreign body inside you - one it is infected, there is no way for the body to kill those bacteria, so it has to be removed (and this not trivial, since the mesh scars into the abdominal wall and becomes very hard to remove). But you may need the mesh to permanently fix the hernia... Not an easy situation.
What two cells make a stoma(stomata)?How might the cutin affect the efficiency of photosynthesis?
1) The Stoma are created by two Guard Cells.
2) Cutin is a waxy substance on leaves and could reduce the amount of light available and thus hinder photosynthesis (one hypothesis). Or it could reduce the amount of gaseous exchange through the leaves.
How does light intensity affect opening and closing of stoma?
At a light intensity of about 1/30 of full sunlight, potassium and chloride ions move into the guard cells from surrounding tissue. Water follows by osmosis and, as the internal pressure rises, the guard cells bulge apart from each other, causing the stomata to open.
This allows the gas exchange required for photosynthesis to take place.
In darkness, leaving the stomata open might risk damage to the leaf by dehydration.