What properties of the solar system are indicative of the planets forming a rotating disk?

Accretion disc planetary formation scenario = Generally speaking; the planets rotate around their central star in the same plane of the elliptic, they have nearly circular orbits, their orbital paths are in the same direction around the central star, their orbits do not intersect. Each point can be elaborated on as to why this feature is indicative of the rotating disc model for Solar System creation.

How did the solar system get created?

According to the nebular hypothesis theory, our sun and planets formed from interstellar gas and dust. The original nebula collapsed into a protostar (which became our sun) and a dust disk. Various eddies and instabilities within the disk led to clumps of dust, ices, and gas sticking together forming protoplanets. After a series of collisions, the larger protoplanets absorbed the smaller ones, until we have the ones we have today. However, there is some disagreement as to the exact process of formation (the devil is in the details after all). Newly discovered solar systems have been found to have quite a few 'hot Jupiters' (ie gas giants in close orbits around parent stars). Also, there is disagreement on how gas giants themselves form. However, the basic mechanism, that protoplanetary disks spawn planets, is not in doubt. Similar disks have been found around many young stars in the Orion Nebula, the star Vega, Fomalhaut, and Beta Piscatorum.

How much space is between our solar system and the next closest one?

The nearest star from our own is Proxima Centauri, just over 4 lightyears away. Space between stars varies, the universe isn't evenly distributed. How far is 4 lightyears? It's about 23,513,999,300,000 miles away (that's 23.5 trillion). As for planets, that's hard, because planets are extremely difficult to see from Earth. In fact, they're nearly impossible unless they cross in front of a star while it's being observed or it's large enough and bright enough that it couldn't possibly be life-sustaining (even though that wasn't your question). We only know of about a hundred or so planets outside our solar system. Most are gas giants, none are Earth-like, although we know that there must be countless planets we can't see. Voyager 1 is about 10 billion miles away from the Sun right now but it's technically still within our solar system. When it passes beyond the boundary, I'm sure it'll make the news. As for getting to another solar system, yes it's possible, but not in our lifetime. It will continue to float through space forever, until something hits it and destroys it, or (highly unlikely) some force equal to its velocity outward will push inward and halt its motion entirely. Interstellar travel and interstellar probes are impossible with today's technology. You can throw a baseball in outer space and rest assured that it will travel 4 lightyears, but there's no guarantee it will manage to hit Proxima Centauri, or any other solar system, at all.

What is the difference between our solar system and our galaxy?

what our solar system is called - Our solar system is nestled inside a very large galaxy of stars called the Milky Way. what exactly is a galaxy - A galaxy is a cluster of stars, nebulae, dark matter, and other astronomical objects. where is our place in it? - The galaxy in which we live is probably a typical spiral galaxy, although recent research shows it has a small bar across the center, making it a barred spiral. It is an island of tens of billions of stars together with gas and dust. It is roughly the shape of a "flying saucer", with a bulge in the middle of a flat disc. Stars and dust are arranged into spirals within the disc, which measures about 100,000 light years across. Ancient globular star clusters form a halo around the Galaxy. We live near a star (the Sun) roughly half way out along the disc. When we look at the night sky we can see a mass of distant stars in the disc, partly hidden by clouds of dust. These stars we call the Milky Way, and this is how our galaxy gets its name. It is sometimes just called the Galaxy. The Milky Way is the second largest galaxy in the small cluster to which it belongs. How many solar systems are there? - Several other stars have disk-shaped clouds around them that seem to be solar systems in formation. In 1983, an infrared telescope in space photographed such a disk around Vega, the brightest star in the constellation Lyra. This discovery represented the first direct evidence of such material around any star except the sun. In 1984, astronomers photographed a similar disk around Beta Pictoris, a star in the southern constellation Pictor. By the early 2000's, astronomers had discovered that more than 50 stars like our sun have planets orbiting them. In almost all cases, they found only one planet per star. All the planets found are probably gaseous with no solid surface.

Whats the difference between a DIY solar panel system and a commercially installed system?

The harbor freight type system is intended to charge a battery, and is low power. It's good for experimenting, but is not very efficient, and not very powerful. I've seen an experimenter say that their 15-watt panel only gave him 5 watts in bright sunlight. If it's the amorphous silicon thin film type of panel, it wears out quickly, dropping to a fraction of its original output in a few years. The $10,000 type whole house system usually has no batteries, and instead ties to the electric grid. There is generally a 10-year warranty on anything going wrong, and the panels themselves, the most expensive part of the system, have a performance warranty of 25 years. The nameplate rating on such a system may be 4000 watts, and you can actually expect to get at least 3400 watts, usually. Neither type of system is easily expandable. The big system can be made expandable later, but that involves spending money up front, and the final system will likely cost more than if the larger system was installed in the first place. An extra panel or two could be added to the small system, since it is generally underpowered anyway, but otherwise expansion means getting a completely new system and running it alongside the first. For ultimate cost effectiveness, the big system is maybe 1/8 the price of the smaller system, per watt.

Does our knowledge of the solar system give us a better chance of surviving such a catastrophe?

I think you need to split this up into several different questions. And some of these don't have a definite answer. Obviously, knowing the orbits of various asteroids and comets makes it possible to predict when and if they will hit the earth, although it's hard to include everything that may affect their orbits. That doesn't really help us to survive a major strike, except that people could leave the area when it gets close enough to tell exactly where it will hit. I don't think that there are any serious predictions about collisions in the future (like in 2012), because that's too far out to calculate. We have found out enough about the other planets in the last few years to know that none of them can support earth-type life, and we haven't found anything to indicate life on the moon or Mars, but there is a lot of life here surviving in what we think of as difficult conditions, so there may be something on other planets or moons. We don't really know how life started here, so we don't know what conditions are necessary.

How much solar system setup for running power a home might cost ?

I don't know about companies in India, but what you might do is look around for someone who has a system, then ask where they got it. If you have trouble finding anyone with a system, maybe it's not a very good deal. If the home is in a less-developed area, and all you would be powering is a light, and a radio or TV at night, then you might get by with the kind of system they use in some parts of Africa. It has a 40 or 80-watt panel, and basically a car battery. The appliances run right off the battery, and no charger or other devices are used. This sort of system costs $200-300 when implemented by a nonprofit organization - I don't know what the cost if you were to try to set it up, yourself. On the other hand, it sounds like you're already connected to a power grid, and maybe already have a heavy appetite for energy in your house. A solar system with batteries tends to cost about $15 a watt in the USA, when hundreds or thousands of watts are involved. A system for a modest off-grid cabin will cost anywhere from $5000 to $30000, depending on the size.

Solar system?

i think you are getting the universe mixed up with our solar system

solar system?

Layout and structure The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a main sequence G2 star that contains 99.86% of the system's known mass and dominates it gravitationally.[6] Jupiter and Saturn, the Sun's two largest orbiting bodies, account for more than 90% of the system's remaining mass.[b] Most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of Earth's orbit, known as the ecliptic. The planets are very close to the ecliptic while comets and Kuiper belt objects are usually at significantly greater angles to it. The orbits of the bodies in the Solar System to scale (clockwise from top left)All of the planets and most other objects also orbit with the Sun's rotation (counter-clockwise, as viewed from above the Sun's north pole). There are exceptions, such as Halley's Comet. Objects travel around the Sun following Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Each object orbits along an approximate ellipse with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse. The closer an object is to the Sun, the faster it moves. The orbits of the planets are nearly circular, but many comets, asteroids and objects of the Kuiper belt follow highly elliptical orbits. To cope with the vast distances involved, many representations of the Solar System show orbits the same distance apart. In reality, with a few exceptions, the farther a planet or belt is from the Sun, the larger the distance between it and the previous orbit. For example, Venus is approximately 0.33 AU farther out than Mercury, while Saturn is 4.3 AU out from Jupiter, and Neptune lies 10.5 AU out from Uranus. Attempts have been made to determine a correlation between these orbital distances (see Titius-Bode law), but no such theory has been accepted. Formation and evolution Main article: Formation and evolution of the Solar System Hubble image of protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula, a light-years-wide "stellar nursery" likely very similar to the primordial nebula from which our Sun formed.The Solar System is believed to have formed according to the nebular hypothesis, which holds that it emerged from the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud 4.6 billion years ago. This initial cloud was likely several light-years across and probably birthed several stars.[7] Studies of ancient meteorites reveal traces of elements only formed in the hearts of very large exploding stars, indicating that the Sun formed within a star cluster, and in range of a number of nearby supernovae explosions. The shock wave from these supernovae may have triggered the formation of the Sun by creating regions of overdensity in the surrounding nebula, allowing gravitational forces to overcome internal gas pressures and cause collapse.[8] Solar System's Most Abundant Isotopes[9] Isotope Nuclei per Million Hydrogen-1 705,700 Hydrogen-2 23 Helium-4 275,200 Helium-3 35 Oxygen-16 5,920 Carbon-12 3,032 Carbon-13 37 Neon-20 1,548 Neon-22 208 Iron-56 1,169 Iron-54 72 Iron-57 28 Nitrogen-14 1,105 Silicon-28 653 Silicon-29 34 Silicon-30 23 Magnesium-24 513 Magnesium-26 79 Magnesium-25 69 Sulfur-32 396 Argon-36 77 Calcium-40 60 Aluminum-27 58 Nickel-58 49 Sodium-23 33 The region that would become the Solar System, known as the pre-solar nebula,[10] had a diameter of between 7000 and 20,000 AU[7][11] and a mass just over that of the Sun (by between 0.1 and 0.001 solar masses).[12] As the nebula collapsed, conservation of angular momentum made it rotate faster. As the material within the nebula condensed, the atoms within it began to collide with increasing frequency. The centre, where most of the mass collected, became increasingly hotter than the surrounding disc.[7] As gravity, gas pressure, magnetic fields, and rotation acted on the contracting nebula, it began to flatten into a spinning protoplanetary disc with a diameter of roughly 200 AU[7] and a hot, dense protostar at the centre.[13][14] Studies of T Tauri stars, young, pre-fusing solar mass stars believed to be similar to the Sun at this point in its evolution, show that they are often accompanied by discs of pre-planetary matter.[12] These discs extend to several hundred AU and reach only a thousand kelvins at their hottest.[15] After 100 million years, the pressure and density of hydrogen in the centre of the collapsing nebula became great enough for the protosun to begin thermonuclear fusion. This increased until hydrostatic equilibrium was achieved, with the thermal energy countering the force of gravitational contraction. At this point the Sun became a full-fledged star.[16] From the remaining cloud of gas and dust (the "solar nebula"), the various planets formed. They are believed to have formed by accretion: the planets began as dust grains in orbit around the central protostar; then gathered by direct contact into clumps between one and ten metres in diameter; then collided to form larger bodies (planetesimals) of roughly 5 km in size; then gradually increased by further collisions at roughly 15 cm per year over the course of the next few million years.[17] The inner Solar System was too warm for volatile molecules like water and methane to condense, and so the planetesimals which formed there were relatively small (comprising only 0.6% the mass of the disc)[7] and composed largely of compounds with high melting points, such as silicates and metals. These rocky bodies eventually became the terrestrial planets. Farther out, the gravitational effects of Jupiter made it impossible for the protoplanetary objects present to come together, leaving behind the asteroid belt.[18] Farther out still, beyond the frost line, where more volatile icy compounds could remain solid, Jupiter and Saturn became the gas giants. Uranus and Neptune captured much less material and are known as ice giants because their cores are believed to be made mostly of ices (hydrogen compounds).[19][20] Once the young Sun began producing energy, the solar wind (see below) blew the gas and dust in the protoplanetary disk into interstellar space and ended the growth of the planets. T Tauri stars have far stronger stellar winds than more stable, older stars.[21][22] Artist's conception of the future evolution of our Sun. Left: main sequence; middle: red giant; right: white dwarfAstronomers estimate that the Solar System as we know it today will last until the Sun begins its journey off of the main sequence. As the Sun burns through its supply of hydrogen fuel, it gets hotter in order to be able to burn the remaining fuel, and so burns it even faster. As a result, the Sun is growing brighter at a rate of roughly ten percent every 1.1 billion years.[23] Around 7.6 billion years from now, the Sun's core will become hot enough to cause hydrogen fusion to occur in its less dense upper layers. This will cause the Sun to expand to roughly up to 260 times its current diameter, and become a red giant.[24] At this point, the sun will have cooled and dulled, because of its vastly increased surface area. Eventually, the Sun's outer layers will fall away, leaving a white dwarf, an extraordinarily dense object, half its original mass but only the size of the Earth.[25] Gaseous cloud from which, in the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system, the Sun and planets formed by condensation. In 1755 Immanuel Kant suggested that a nebula gradually pulled together by its own gravity developed into the Sun and planets. Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace, in 1796 proposed a similar model, in which a rotating and contracting cloud of gas — the young Sun — shed concentric rings of matter that condensed into the planets. But James Clerk Maxwell showed that, if all the matter in the known planets had once been distributed this way, shearing forces would have prevented such condensation. Another objection was that the Sun has less angular momentum than the theory seems to require. In the early 20th century most astronomers preferred the collision theory: that the planets formed as a result of a close approach to the Sun by another star. Eventually, however, stronger objections were mounted to the collision theory than to the nebular hypothesis, and a modified version of the latter — in which a rotating disk of matter gave rise to the planets through successively larger agglomerations, from dust grains through planetesimals and protoplanets — became the prevailing theory of the solar system's origin.Young stars generally have material widely spread around them that organizes itself into a disk over time. Astronomers believe that this is where planets form. The new image, which is sensitive to the dust around the star but not starlight, shows a horseshoe-shaped structure orbiting AB Aurigae with two denser, brighter clumps of material in a ring around the star next to a darker area. This darker area, a structure relatively depleted of widespread material previously predicted in models of planet formation but never seen before, is thought to be the point at which material is coalescing into a planet or brown dwarf. Further imaging of this area shows a barely visible spot dead center, a spot too bright to be light reflected off a formed planet but consistent with an object in the process of development that is accreting new material. The two brighter clumps, equidistant from the hole and presumably trailing and leading it in its orbit around the star, seem similar to the Trojan objects that orbit the Sun along with Jupiter. Such a structure has been predicted to form in disks where a planet is present, because of the gravitational interaction between the planet and the star it orbits. “The deficit of material could be due to a planet forming and sucking material onto it, coalescing into a small point in the image and clearing material in the immediate surroundings. This would look like a h

Solar System?

The galaxy is not the same thing as the solar system! Our solar system is 8 planets, plus numerous dwarf planets, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids orbiting the Sun. The Sun in turn is just one of many billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy. The Sun orbits the center of the galaxy and the galaxy is moving in space toward the Andromeda galaxy. Nothing is stationary.