Weathering - is the disintegration of rocks brought about by physical or chemical means which then gives rise to to rock fragments.
Erosion - is defined as the process by which rock fragments and sediments are carried away by by water, air, wind, man, animals, glaciers and gravity.
Diastrophism - involves the movement of the earth upward, downward and sideward. This results plateaus, hills, mountains and valleys. The raised part is called anticline and the low part is called syncline.
Earthquake - is caused by vibrations of the ground due to the horizontal or vertical movements of the earth's rock layers.
Newton showed that, for spherical objects, you can make the simplifying assumption that all of the object's mass is concentrated at the center of the sphere. The following equation expresses the gravitational attraction that two spherical objects have on one another:
F = G(M1*M2/R2)
F is the force of attraction between them.
G is a constant that is 6.67259 x 10^-11 m^3/kg s^2.
M1 and M2 are the two masses that are attracting each other.
R is the distance separating the two objects.
Assume that Earth is one of the masses (M1) and a 1-kg sphere is the other (M2). The force between them is 9.8 kg*m/s^2 -- we can calculate this force by dropping the 1-kg sphere and measuring the acceleration that the Earth's gravitational field applies to it (9.8 m/s^2).
The radius of the Earth is 6,400,000 meters (6,999,125 yards). If you plug all of these values in and solve for M1, you find that the mass of the Earth is 6,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000 kilograms (6 x 10^24 kilograms, or 1.3 x 10^25 pounds, about 5.8 x 10^21 tons).
It is "more proper" to ask about mass rather than weight because weight is a force that requires a gravitational field to determine. You can take a bowling ball and weigh it on the Earth and on the moon. The weight on the moon will be one-sixth that on the Earth, but the amount of mass is the same in both places. To weigh the Earth, we would need to know in which object's gravitational field we want to calculate the weight. The mass of the Earth, on the other hand, is a constant.
Earth day is a day wherein you appreciate Earth and take care of it. Turning off your lights and planting trees are some examples of how you celebrate Earth day. But you shouldn't just do it on Earth day, just like the first patron of ecology(St. Francis of Assisi) , everyday is Earth day.
The generally accepted age for the Earth and the rest of the solar system is about 4.55 billion years (plus or minus about 1%). This value is derived from several different lines of evidence.
Unfortunately, the age cannot be computed directly from material that is solely from the Earth. There is evidence that energy from the Earth's accumulation caused the surface to be molten. Further, the processes of erosion and crustal recycling have apparently destroyed all of the earliest surface.
The oldest rocks which have been found so far (on the Earth) date to about 3.8 to 3.9 billion years ago (by several radiometric dating methods). Some of these rocks are sedimentary, and include minerals which are themselves as old as 4.1 to 4.2 billion years. Rocks of this age are relatively rare, however rocks that are at least 3.5 billion years in age have been found on North America, Greenland, Australia, Africa, and Asia.
earting has great role for safety . When ever an electronic divice get defect or lose when you touch its metallic part (provided the part get electric curren from the defect or lose) you will get shock without earthing but with earthing you will not get shock because earth will make it zero potential
Here's an image of the earth and the moon from Mars:
Earth is magnitude -2.5, and the moon +0.9.
It's interesting to think about the geometry. A typical distance between earth and Mars is about 1 astronomical unit. At this distance, a viewer from Mars would see a maximum separation of 9 arc minutes between the earth and the moon; this is about 9 times larger than the resolution of the human eye. From earth, we can't see any planetary moons without optical aid; but from Mars, an astronaut could see the moon as well as the earth. The glare of the much brighter earth might make the moon a little difficult to see; but we can see bright stars next to the full moon, so seeing earth's moon from Mars should be pretty easy.
Mars currently (1/3/08) has a brightness of magnitude -1.4, so the earth in this photo is significantly brighter (about 1 magnitude) than Mars is from earth right now (and Mars is now brighter than it usually is).
From Mars, the brightness of earth would be very similar to the brightness of Jupiter from earth. I think that earth would have a blue tinge, compared to the very white appearance of Jupiter.
Another answer mentioned that the Martian view of earth would be similar to our view of Venus, with phases and considerable variations in size. Here's another interesting thing to consider: Suppose you're an amateur astronomer on Mars, and you take out your telescope to get a good view of the earth and the moon. They would both have the same phase! When earth is a crescent, the moon would also be a crescent. The moon would only be a few seconds of arc across, so you'd want a sizable telescope to get a good view. Fortunately, the Martian atmosphere is so sparse that it wouldn't cause the problems of earth's atmosphere (unless there was a dust storm depositing material on your optics).
Because Venus and Mercury have no moons, earthlings are deprived of the experience of seeing a close pair of objects sharing the gamut of phases from thin crescent to full. (A truly full earth would lie behind the sun, and would be invisible from Mars.)
Here's an article that talks about the sky from Mars:
Well, starting off -
Both planets are terrestrial (or "rocky") planets sufficiently large to contain an atmosphere.
Both planets have at least one natural moon.
Both planets have significant carbon dioxide in their atmosphere
They're not really all that similar, all things considered - from a purely geophysical perspective Venus is more similar to Earth than Mars is. But, from a human habitation perspective, it's a lot easier to bundle up for warmth on a cold planet (Mars) than it is to protect against extreme heat (Venus). Mars is more like something intermediate between Earth and the Moon (except colder), than it is "just like Earth." In particular, Mars has less gravity, and a very thin atmosphere (about 1% compared to Earth), so it's "The best chance" for colonization, but it's still not great.
The diameter of the Earth is 12,742 km across. But this number is actually an average. That’s because the Earth is spinning in space. The spin of the planet cause the equator to bulge out further than the poles.
So imagine the Earth as a slightly flattened sphere. Measured from pole to pole, the diameter of Earth is 12,713 km across. And measured across the equator, the Earth’s diameter is 12,756 km across. In other words, points on the equator are about 21 km further from the center of the Earth than the poles.
The Earth has a mass of 5.97Ã—1024 kg.
The atmosphere is primarily composed of Nitrogen (N2, 78%), Oxygen (O2, 21%), and Argon (Ar, 1%). A myriad of other very influential components are also present which include the water (H2O, 0 - 7%), "greenhouse" gases or Ozone (O, 0 - 0.01%), and Carbon Dioxide (CO2, 0.01-0.1%).
The Earth may only have one Moon, but it's a big one! The Earth's Moon is the fifth largest in the whole solar system. But it is still smaller than the Earth, so objects weigh less on the Moon than they do here. That's why the astronauts could enjoy bouncing around on the lunar surface.
During elongation of the Earth, as seen from Mars (that means when Earth appears farthest from the sun in the sky) the moon could be separated from the Earth by about 1/10th of a degree. For comparison that's about a fifth of the visible diameter of the moon from the Earth. Given the magnitudes stated above, the Earth's glare could make it very difficult to see the moon, though it might be possible.
Note, the above magnitude for the "full moon" is spurious because you would not usually see a full Earth moon from Mars...only when the pair are on the far side of the sun and at their minimum angular separation (about a 20th of a degree).
However, as the Earth swung toward inferior conjunction, passing between the sun and Mars, the separation of the Earth and moon could reach as much as a third of a degree...and that would likely allow one to see the moon.
Of course, the figures above are only when the moon itself is at its maximum visible separation from the Earth...which only happens twice a month.
So, the answer is that, most of the time, you would not be able to see the moon, but for a few days at a time (every two weeks), for a few months on either side of inferior conjunction, you would be able to.
Clear as mud?
Earth has no weight because it is not resting on a surface, nor being suspended from a support.
Earth has Mass. Every object has mass. Not every object has weight.
Pleans learn the difference between mass and weight so that you can ask an intelligent question, next time.
here is a good graphic (picture) with information for each layer of earth. http://www.amonline.net.au/geoscience/pdf/earth_structure.pdf
> Where does earths greatest speed of rotation occur?
> What is Earths rate of rotation?
At the equator. The speed is 40,000 km/24 hour or about 460 m/s
> When is Earth closest to the sun?
On January 4.
The earth is a planet that will "in theory" exist until the sun explodes. Man would die before that because of the increased heat from the earth making the earth uninhabitable before the earth is destroyed.
The Book of Revelations gives a different scenario that seems to be coming to fruition in the middle east even as you read this answer.
Both have craters, both have once had (Earth still does) tectonic activity (that is what the Marias are believed to be). Rock ages on Earth are 4 billion years and 4.6 billion years for moon rock. This is proof that Earth is still geological active and the moon no longer is. Earth's radius is 3,960 miles and the moon's is 1,069 miles. The moon is 238,000 miles away from Earth. Surface gravity is about 1/6th that which we feel on Earth. The moon has no atmosphere while the Earth does. The moon has similar composition characteristics as the Earth, but the moon lacks metals. There are 3 types of rock found on the moon. Brecciated rock which is rock that has been crushed, anorthosite rock which is silicate rock and basaltic rock which is lava rock. Mare (mare are younger parts of the moon and less cratered parts) basalts are 3.2 to 3.8 billion years old. Breccia is 3.9 to 4.3 billion years old. Highland (older, more cratered areas) silicates are 4.4 to 4.6 billion years old. The moon was thought to be created by one of four different ways. 1. Broke off from the Earth during fomation (or by collision with something). 2. Earth captured it. 3. During formation they just formed together side by side. 4. Giant impact which is like number 1. The interior of the moon is solid which means no tectonic activity. While on Earth there is a asthenospehere, lithosphere, crust, outer core and inner core. There is also no ozone on the moon, which is the layer on Earth that protects life from harmful UV rays and without this layer life would not be able to survive....just another reason why there is no life on the mom. Oh..yeh and the fact there is no oxygen (lack of atmosphere). I hope this information was helpful.
Earth Science or Geoscience is the study of the earth and its processes [eg, biological,ecological,chemical, geological,hydrological,atmospherical etc etc]
it differs from geology by including ANY of the sciences that deal with the earth or its parts, and not just geology.
this is also how a geologist differs from a geoscientist
The Earth, along with the rest of our Solar System (and other stellar systems in our local area of space), formed from gravitational collapse (I think that is what it is called) of a nebula of a super nova. At first the Earth was without layers, but 3.9 billion years ago a planet that used to reside between Mars and Jupiter exploded. The Earth and other planets were bombarded by those fragments, and the Earth became molten from this event. Since then the Earth cooled and has been experiencing Core/mantle Differentiation (the process that separated the mantle from the core) and Mantle/crust Differentiation (the ongoing process that is separating the crust from mantle).
the earth moves because it is in orbit around the sun and this is why. objects that are massive, really massive, like the sun, actually bend space time. they create a ditch, if you will, in space time... it is warped. look at this picture:
the big object in the middle is probably a star. the two other objects are probably different planets that are oribiting this star. the graph you see is space-time.
so this massive object created a ditch. as a result of this, a force is produced. that force is called gravity. gravity is a pull. basically what happens is when objects, such as earth, fall into this ditch created by a massive object, such as the sun, the earth is pulled into the gravatational field created by the sun. so the sun's gravity is forced upon the earth.
you might be wondering... "why doesn't the earth fall in then?". well, massive objects such as the earth, well any objects for that matter, have something called inertia. inertia is the tendency of an object to resist motion. the amount of inertia is based on the amount of mass in an object. and because the earth has a lot of mass, it has a lot of inertia, preventing it from falling into the sun, and instead, simply orbits it in a circle.
Earth has a far more complex geology than most planets. The gas giants, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune probably only have solid cores deep inside the planet where temperatures and pressures are very high. The Moon, Mars and Mercury are all relatively quiescent compared to earth. They don't have plate tectonics, a thick atmosphere or liquid water. The surface of Venus is far too hot for liquid water and it has a very thick carbon dioxide atmosphere.
Earth's active geology has the effect of concentrating certain elements and allows many different minerals to form.
Thus earth has plenty of opportunity to form unique minerals. Minerals formed by water are likely to be unique to earth in the solar system. Carbonate minerals such as Calcite, Gaspeite, Magnesite, Otavite, Rhodochrosite, Siderite, Smithsonite and Sphaerocobaltite are probably only found on earth.
Another unique feature of earth which is produces unique minerals is the presence of substantial quantities of free oxygen in the atmosphere. Minerals like cuprite probably don't exist on other planets.
Note that these are minerals. Earth does not contain any unique elements - unless you count the radioactive minerals produced by man - such as plutonium.
No one knows the exact mineral composition of the mantle of the earth. However silica silicon dioxide is likely to be the most abundant component.
earth science is an all embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. Earth science deals with four major disciplines namely geography, geology, geophysics and geodesy. These major disciplines use physics, chemistry, biology, chronlogy and mathematics to build quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of the Earth system.
Earth science generally recognizes 4 spheres the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere and the biosphere. These correspond to rocks, water, air and life.
Geology describes rocky parts of Earth's crust (the lithosphere).
Geophysics and Geodesy investigate the figure of the Earth.
Geophysicists explore the Earth's core, mantle, tectonic and seismic activity of lithosphere.
Geography is the study of Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants and phenomena.
Prime Earth is where every thing happened and orgininated from that Earth.
The orginial thoughs and decisions and actions too place on Earth Prime
Example: you went to school and became a race car driver.
Any other Earth besides Prime you were a doctor lawyer etc but not a race car driver
Owl man said since we are the result of every alternate dicesion made the opposite of Earth Prime the only action that a person who was the opposite of the decision they made somewhere, is to Destroy Earth Prime.
By Destroy Earth Prime we would as a human and human alternate race made the only meaningful decison ever.
If Earth Prime is Destroy then all alternate Earths will fall with it. Thus everything is truly based on Earth prime.
Batman stopped him.
New Earth is just the alternate Earth where the Justice Lords Lived I think???
Earth definitely has gravity. It is what keeps you from floating in midair! Gravity is what makes objects fall to the ground (and, in turn, towards the center of gravity which is Earth's core).
All mass has gravity. Even your body has some gravity attracting other objects. You only won't notice it because it is an extremely insignificant amount of gravity, and the gravity is overwhelmed by Earth's gravity.
If there is mass, there is gravity.
We think its about 4.55 billion years old with a margin or error of a few 10's of millions of years. The way we come up with 4.55 is by dating the oldest meteroites that fall on the earth. Since they were formed about the same time as the earth and other planets logic suggests they are about the same age. There are no minerals on earth that old because when you melt and recrystalize a mineral you "reset" its clock. The earth was so hot back then that the origional rocks were melted.
Earth Day is one of two different observances, both held annually during spring in the northern hemisphere, and autumn in the southern hemisphere. These are intended to inspire awareness of and appreciation for the Earth's environment. The United Nations celebrates an Earth Day each year on the March equinox, a tradition which was founded by peace activist John McConnell in 1969. A second Earth Day, which was founded by U.S. politician Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in in the late 1960s, is celebrated in many countries each year on April 22.
Visit the source link to know in detail.
There's a simple way to go about this. The answer is reasonably accurate too.
Now, we know that the formula for the volume of a sphere is 4/3 times pi times the cube of earth's radius.
Given the value of pi as 3.14 and the earth's radius as 6400 km, and also assuming that the earth is a perfect sphere, we get the volume as 1.09806622 * 10^12 cubic kilometers.
The Earth itself (not life on Earth) could die in about 4-5 billion years time. As the Sun comes to the end of it's life, it will expand and engulf the orbits of Mercury, Venus and possibly Earth too. If it doesn't engulf Earth then the Earth will remain in orbit around the huge Sun until the Sun has 'puffed' off it's outer layers and shrunk to a white dwarf. The Earth could then be released from it's orbit if the Sun's gravity has diminished enough, and set out on it's own way through our solar system and galaxy. What happens then is anyone's guess....
Earth is ground and and rock and minerals. Depending on the tradition plants can be earth or air. In Chinese and some Pagan Traditions plants are considered as air. Also many traditions have 5 elements. Earth, air/ wood, water, fire, metal. Some / most also contain ethers.
The sun. Imagine your standing in the middle of a race track and a car is going around you. Relative to you its revolving around you. If you were in the car the car wouldn't be moving relative to you just like the earth isn't revolving around the sun relative to a person on earth, the sun is moving around the earth. Relative to the moon (which is also revolving around the sun by revolving around the earth), the earth is simply revolving around the moon.
Earth is like an apple in so far as it has sections, just like an apple.
The crust of the earth is much like the skin of an apple. It is very thin compared to the entire thickness of the earth, just like the skin of an apple is very thin compared to the thickness of the apple.
The meat of the apple is the thickest part of the apple, much like the mantle, and both are situated directly under the skin/crust.
The core of the apple is like the core of the earth, it is located in the centre surrounded by the meat/mantle.
Its a standard comparison when teaching the layers of the earth.
Earth is estimated to be around 4.5 billion years based on geological "clues", radio isotope dating, etc. This is supported by "big-bang" theorists but is hotly debated by "creationists" who believe the world to be less than 10,000 years old (I think it is what they say). Although there is plenty of scientific evidence to suggest the world is so much older, their argument is the incomplete fossil record and the inability to accurately verify ages using C14 dating and other means nullifies any argument made by evolutionists and big-bang theorists.
I happen to be of both schools of thought- simply believing that the "Big Bang" explains how Creation occurred.
http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/geotime/age.html a link for your perusal. This one talks about how they are trying to determine the age of the earth and how they are doing it. Very scientific.
Earth Day is a time of year to promote awareness of the environmental issues that are occurring on Earth. It is also time for us to protect the natural gifts it has given us.
Earth Day started in 1970, when Gaylord Nelson, a U.S. senator from Wisconsin, when he wanted a nation-wide teach-in on the environment. He brought the idea to state governors, mayors of big cities, editors of college newspapers, and to Scholastic Magazine, which is circulated in U.S. elementary and secondary schools. Eventually, the idea of Earth Day spread to many people across the country. Earth Day was a big success. Many organizations were developed to on behalf of Earth Day and to help protect where we live now.
Now, Earth Day has turned into a universal concern and many people are now aware of what is happening to our planet. More and more people are turning their attention to what it happening because of Global Warming and are taking time to help out on Earth Day.
Jupiter can't affect Earth directly (its too far and while its larger than all the other planets put together its gravitational field is not large enough to affect Earth).
However, Jupiter can affect Earth indirectly.
There are some studies that suggest Jupiter does have some effect on the sun's magnetic field as Jupiter orbits the sun, and that could affect sunspot activity which has some effects on Earth's magnetic field.
Jupiter's massive gravity can affect the orbit of comets, and there are some that are locked in elliptical orbits between Jupiter and the sun - these short-term comets approach the inner solar system regularly (some every few years), and that can pose some risk to Earth.
It can also affect the orbits of asteroids (Jupiter controls the outer edge of the asteroid belt) and asteroids that have their orbits perturbed could end up coming closer to Earth than in the past.
But it can't affect Earth itself in any way.
About 1.3 million Earth volumes would fit into the Sun's volume.
The volume of the Sun, however, is measured by the photosphere, the outer layer that gives off energy - there is no solid surface. The outer layers of the Sun are much less dense than the Earth. Although the Sun contains 1,300,000 times the volume of the Earth, its mass is only about 322,900 times that of the Earth.
The relative spherical volumes of the Earth and the Sun are difficult to precisely determine, because the Sun's actual diameter is not based on a solid surface. The "photosphere", the visible exterior, is a tenuous gas layer of considerable thickness.
The volume can be approximated using the Sun's polar diameter and the equatorial bulge (much larger than the Earth's). This yields a volume of 1.4 x 1018 km3 for the Sun, which is between 1.2 and 1.3 million times the volume of the Earth.
1,296,695 x .74 = ~959,554 solid Earths could fit in the Sun
The Earth has a diameter of about 12700 kilometers (7900 miles).
The Sun has a diameter of about 1.39 million kilometers (865000 miles).
The Sun's diameter is therefore about 109 times the diameter of earth.
Have a pleasant day.
No, earth is not flat.
The earth is shaped not as a sphere but as an oblate ellipsoid or geoid (which simply means "earth shaped.") The earth is widest at the equator due to gravity and rotation. The earth is 24,901.55 miles around at the equator and 24,859.82 miles between the North and South Poles. The difference between the two is 41.73 miles, so the earth is 41.73 miles wider than it is tall.
(Geodesy is the science that studies the shape and size of the Earth. As discussed in Voyagers, the shape of the earth was long known to be round. Aristotle and Pythagoras both argued that the earth was a sphere from the curved shadow it cast during lunar eclipses. About two thousand years later, Sir Isaac Newton suggested that the earth was not a perfect sphere, but rather somewhat flattened at its poles.
From mathematical considerations of the combined gravitational and centrifugal forces which the earth experiences, Newton computed that the Earth's shape should be an oblate spheroid, a solid formed when an ellipse is rotated about its axis (see Figure 14). Expeditions to Peru in 1735 and to Lapland in 1736 confirmed this theory. The difference in axes is about 1 part in 300. This means the earth's equatorial diameter is 7,926 miles, while its polar diameter is 7,900 miles.
Although the difference between equatorial and polar diameters is only 26 miles, the oblate shape of the earth complicates geographical matters. )
Earth 616 is the original and mainstream earth for Marvel, it's where events canonical happen.
Earth-One is a new DC continuity that would be roughly equivalent to Marvel's ultimate universe, meaning it's not the official world and is a retelling of characters in a different setting.
EDIT: New Earth
and let me clarify
when i said earth-one i mean the new series recently released, not the original earth-one, that was retconned during crisis on infinite earths.
Ideal earthing (grounding) ensures that the point (node) that is being grounded is at the same Voltage potential as that of the earth at that particular location. Practical earthing can be accomplished by inserting a very low resistance conductor between the point that is being grounded and the earth.
The earth is approximately a sphere (actually it is sphere slightly flattened at the poles). Its volume can be calculated if you know its radius. Use the equation for the volume of a sphere which is V = 4/3 x Radius3
The mean radius of the earth is approximately 6.4 million meters (exact = 6.37 x 106 m). Its volume is then:
(4/3) x 3.14 x 64000003 m3
This comes to 1,097,509,500,000,000,000,000 cubic meters. Needless to say, this is very large! Inside of one cubic meter you could fit seven or eight high school students. I know, I teach high school and I have fit eight students in a cubic meter! So, this would be 137,188,690,000,000,000,000 students. Is your high school this big?
This number of students is so large that if you could count one number per second it would take you more than 4 trillion years to count this high. If you counted by millions it would still take you over a million years to get to this number! It would take you over eight million years to count to the number of cubic meters the earth is. So, the earth is very large indeed!
The earth doesn't have weight, since weight is defined by the gravitational force acting between the earth and another object. Also, since the earth is floating in space in orbit around the sun, it is literally weightless relative to the sun's gravitational field. Meaning there is no force between the earth and the sun that you can measure. However, the earth has mass, which is about 5.97 x 10^24 kg.
You could say this is equivalent to 6.58 x 10^21 or 6,580,000,000, 000,000,000,000 tons of rock, or 5.85 x 10^19 Meganewtons, if you could weigh it. But that is not very meaningful, except to give you a vague feeling of its immensity.
The acceleration of gravity at Earth’s surface is a function of the mass of Earth and the radius of Earth. The mass / acceleration relationship is direct, is one increases or decreases, the other changes by an equal amount. However the radius relationship is a little bit more complicated. But we have already gone beyond the scope of your question!
If the mass of Earth increases, ‘g’ increases too; if the mass of Earth decreases, ‘g’ of Earth decreases as well.
You can use this equation to calculate the actual numbers: g = Gm / r^2. In other words the acceleration due to gravity anywhere is equal to the product of the universal gravitational constant (G) and the mass of Earth divided by the radius squared.
As you can see from the equation that if ‘G ‘and ‘r’ stay the same and you only change ‘m’, then ‘g’ must change by the same amount. So, if you double ‘m’, you will double ‘g’. If you increase ‘m’ by a factor of 0.3 you will increase ‘g’ by a factor of 0.3.
earth (dust)= tierra
Earth (the planet) = la Tierra
planet Earth = el planeta Tierra
If you coud provide context it would be great... in any case you can check the forums of www.wordreference.com, they're a lot of help
The earth was formed in the same way as the sun, planets, stars. At first the earth was a hot glowing ball of white hot gases with a temperature that was millions of degrees Fahrenheit. This was caused by particles of gases being drawn together and compressed, giving off a lot of heat. This happened millions of years ago.
Finally the earth cooled down. The ball of gas slowed down from spinning and the color changed from white to yellow to red to not giving off any light at all.
The earth contracted, getting smaller and the gases changed to liquid as they cooled. Heavier materials drew to the center of the earth. The heavier liquid settled at the middle of the earth. As the earth cooled more, a solid crust formed over the over the liquid material. As the crust cooled, it got wrinkled and burst open in spots. Gradually cracks formed in the crust. Water that formed under the earth's crust escaped from the cracks in the earth and soon water vapor formed above the earth. This lead to cloud formation. Larger droplets formed in the clouds and as they were pulled to the earth by gravity came the first rainfalls. The rain at first evaporated as soon as it hit the earth. Later, as the earth continued to cool, the rain stayed on to form lakes and oceans. At first the water was all fresh water, but as it had chemicals from the earth's crust mix in, the water of the oceans became salty. At one time the earth was all water on its surface.
Later pressure and heat in its center pushed up solid portions of the earth that became land forms. Sometimes the land would sink back down and other portions arise.
About three million years ago, the earth cooled a great deal and great sheets of ice called glaciers covered its surface. As the ice spread over the land, it gouged great valleys, rivers and lakes into the earth. About 8000 years ago the last glaciers melted, with the earth more as it is today.
Layers of the Earth
The part of the earth we live on is a very thin layer relative to the inner earth. Looking at the cutaway earth below, the earth has several layers.
The innermost layer is the core of the earth. It is about 4000 miles thick. It has two parts, the inner core which is red on the diagram below and the outer core which is melon colored. The inner core is very hot is very hot and made of heavy metals, mostly iron.
The next layer which is yellowish in color is the mantle. It is made up of a rock called peridodite which is heavier than the earth's rocks.
The layer that we live on is called the crust and is the thin brown layer on the diagram. It is thickest under the continents and thinner under the oceans. It is about 50 miles down at its thickest. The crust is actually not as solid as it feels to us and shifts, sometimes abruptly during earthquakes, and very slowly as when continents drift. The different pieces of the earth's crust are referred to as plates, and their movements towards and away from each other are called plate tectonics.
I believe the N. Mangetic Pole is amongst the Queen Elizabeth Islands in northern Canada, maybe Ellesmere or Devon Island. The S. Magnetic Pole is probably on or near the Antarctic coast. This "magnet" is perhaps where the earth is vertical or perpendicular 2 it's orbit. The geographic poles, at 90° N & 90° S, r I think where the earth's rot8n' axis is. (Incidentally, u can probably b @ the geographic N. Pole & your compass would still guide u 2 the magnetic poll.) The geographic axis is @ a angle, so the Earth appears tilted in orbit. Thus, the magnet & the geographic axis gives us our tropical, temperate, & polar zones (separated by the Ant-/Arctic Circles & Tropix of Cancer/Capricorn) & four seasons on different hemispheres.
The earth was formed around 4.5 billion years ago, it is believed that all matter was one mass and then blown apart by a big explosion of energy called the Big Bang. Even though the universe is still expanding, some parts of it condensed (come together) to form the solar system. It is believed that earth formed from clouds and gases.
But how did life started on earth? Well there are many theories behind this, evolution of life is very controversial. Theories include:
1: Steady state: says that the earth existed as it does now, and it has been able to support and changed very little over time (clearly this theory is wrong, the earth wasnt like this 4.0 bya.)
2: Spontanteous generation: this theory suggests that living things arise from non living matter, now this is something interesting. if you try to think about it, it makes sense, why do snails appear only when it rains? why do flies appear when its summer? and do flies really arise from rotten meat? hmmmm..... well you can check spallanzani and Pasteur's experiment for this, they have proved this theory wrong. ....
3: Chemosynthetic theory: This thoery was suggested by Urey and Miller (teacher and student). They did an experiment to test Oparin's theory which was that the atmosphere during the years when earth was formed lead to the formation of organic molecules. and these reactions lead to the forrmation of living cells. interesting huh? Check out their experiment, it's really cool and clever and reliable, and since then many scientist have been encouraged to discover conditions and processes that occur which lead to the formation of organic molecules, self replicating molecules and other stages needed in the origin of life.. ( i support this theory)
4: Panspermia or Cozmoan thoery: this theory suggest that seeds from outer space may have lead to life on earth. For example the Murchison meteorite found in Victoria Australia revealed that it contained organic molecules, 19 of the 92 amino acids found on the meteorite was foun on earth, which leads to the point that those amino acids which leads to life may have come from outer space and not formed on the earth itself.... who knows,unless we do some more research, and NASA is there for the rescue.
5: Special Recreation: well this theory is upheld by most of the world's religions, which states that the formation of life is due to a supernatural event or "God". But this is outside the framework of science, since there are not sufficient evidence to prove it. because it only occured once.
4.5 billion years is what is told
When the earths mass started to show
Who can prove this idea with in hand fact
to take a solid from from
a lava state of
continual eruption and
surface movement of the near liquid surface
And then the earth was given a water to cool down the surface so as to become solid
Then after no scientist can give an estimate of time as to how long it took to have a breathable atmosphere
To support the primitive form of life that would evolve into the first life forms on earth
And that life form would be destroyed and a new one would began and another and another era of life would began till our
And the time for all this to of happen is unknown because all the evidence of it is lost in the up heavals the earth has had in getting to this stage
And the only evidence of this era of the earths evolving into what it is today is can only be found with the
Rock evidence left behind in the last stage of the earths evolving
So to tell the truth no one knows how old the earth is from its firs becoming a planetary body to what it is today.
This is scientific fact not a sumerization of hypotheses only fact
Think about it
Who was here to see the earth take its first form to become a planet
Most obviously, the earth spins on its axis, once every 23 hr. 56 min. This causes day and night, and makes most extraterrestrial objects (sun, moon, planets, stars...) seem to move around the sky in about one day. We, on the surface of the earth, move with the earth. A person at the equator moves about a thousand miles per hour (about 1600 km/hr) toward the East. We in temperate latitudes move slower. The spin of the earth is slowing down, because of the pull of the tides. The spin also speeds up and slows down very slightly because of changes in large weather patterns.
The earth's spin axis wobbles. This is called the precession of the equinoxes. One complete wobble (rotation) of the axis takes about 26,000 years. The wobble is mostly caused by the gravitational pull of Jupiter and other planets.
The earth moves around the sun, in an elliptical (but nearly circular) orbit, once a year. Because of this, and the tilt of the earth's axis, we experience The Seasons. This orbit also causes a solar day to be 24 hours instead of 23 hr. 56 min. The earth is moving about 67,000 mi/hr (107,000 km/hr) in its orbit.
The earth moves around the center of the earth-moon system, once a month. See the addendum below.
The solar system (the sun, its planets, and smaller objects) is part of the rotation of the Milky Way galaxy. The various nearby stars move about the galaxy at somewhat different speeds and directions. Our motion, around the galaxy, is currently about 550,000 mi/hr (900,000 km/hr) toward the constellation Lyra. It takes the solar system about 200 to 250 million years to go around the galaxy once.
The Milky Way is moving within the local cluster of galaxies (known as the Local Group). I do not know how fast or in which direction the Milky Way is moving.
The Local Group is moving within the Local Supercluster. Superclusters are clusters of clusters of galaxies.
The various superclusters of galaxies are moving away from each other. Each of these superclusters can be viewed as being at rest, while all the others are moving away from it. So there is no logical reason to choose a direction and speed for the Local Supercluster. The most distant galaxies and quasars appear to be moving away at nearly the speed of light.
The earth is similar to a spinning top.
Go to the website below to learn about the physics of spinning top.
An object has more stability when it is rotating. A spinning top can be vertical if the angular velocity is high enough. As the friction force decreases the angular velocity of the spinning top, the top leans a specific angle from vertical. Then the leaning top begins to precess.
The earth is similar to this leaning spinning top. According to the website above, the axial tilt of the earth is approximately 23.4˚. As the earth rotates 1 time, a position on the surface moves a distance equal to the circumference of the earth.
Linear momentum measures the ability of an object to continue moving in a straight line with a constant linear speed and direction. It is very difficult to change the velocity of an object with large mass and velocity. The same is true for an object with large mass and angular velocity. Angular momentum measures the ability of an object to continue rotating at a constant angular speed in a specific plane.
Let’s determine the angular momentum of the earth.
Angular momentum = Moment of inertia * Angular velocity
If we assume that the earth is shaped like a sphere, the moment of inertia = 2/5 * mass * radius^2
Mass = 5.98 * 10^24 kg
Radius = 6.38 * 10 ^6 m
Moment of inertia = 2/5 * 5.98 * 10^24 * (6.38 * 10^2)^2 = 9.7365 * 10^37
Velocity = distance ÷ time
Distance = Circumference = 2 * π * r = 2 * π * 6.38 * 10^6 meters
The earth rotates 1 time in 24 hours.
Time = 24 hr * 60 min/hr * 60 s/min = 86,400 seconds
Velocity = (2 * π * 6.38 * 10^6) ÷ 86,400 ≈ 464 m/s
The person at the equator is moving at speed of approximately 464 m/s.
This is the tangential velocity of an object at the equator.
Angular velocity = Tangential velocity ÷ radius = 464 ÷ (6.38 * 10^6) ≈ 7.27 * 10^-5 rad/s
Angular momentum = 9.7365 * 10^37 * 7.27 * 10^-5 = 7.078 * 10^33 kg * m/s
Go to the website below.
This very large angular momentum makes it very difficult to change magnitude of the angular velocity and the angle of the axial tilt.
In one day, the earth rotates one time. Everything on the earth experiences the life giving energy of sun during one portion the day. If the magnitude of the angular velocity of the earth was changed, the length of a day would be different. The angle of the axial tilt causes the seasons. If the earth did not rotate and was not tilted 23.4˚, the climate of the earth would much different. The survival of all life on the earth is dependent on the earth’s angular velocity, angle of axial tilt, and orbital velocity.
I wanna what makes the earth revolve in the orbit.
The answer to this question is the fact that life on the earth could not exist if the earth did not revolve at the specific speed and angle of axial tile. The laws of physics do not control the motion of the planets and stars in the universe. The laws of physics are expressed by the equations that we learn in physics class. These equations were developed by people, like Isaac Newton, who observed the motion of the planets and stars.
No person or thing makes the earth revolve as it orbits the Sun. The motion of the earth has not significantly changed since man has existed. Some people believe the earth exists as we see it today, due to evolution. I believe that the universe is as it is, because the existence of life, as we know it, is not possible under any other set of conditions.
I believe that God created the universe as it is, so life could exist.
I do not know what force is perpendicular to earth's gravitational!
How Old is the Earth?
For particles-to-people evolution to have occurred, the earth would need to be billions of years old. So Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science presents what it claims is evidence for vast time spans. This is graphically illustrated in a chart on pages 36–37: man’s existence is in such a tiny segment at the end of a 5-billion-year time-line that it has to be diagrammatically magnified twice to show up.
On the other hand, basing one’s ideas on the Bible gives a very different picture. The Bible states that man was made six days after creation, about 6,000 years ago. So a time-line of the world constructed on biblical data would have man almost at the beginning, not the end. If we took the same 15-inch (39 cm) time-line as does Teaching about Evolution to represent the biblical history of the earth, man would be about 1/1000th of a mm away from the beginning! Also, Christians, by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously. He said: ‘But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female’ (Mark 10:6), which would make sense with the proposed biblical time-line, but is diametrically opposed to the Teaching about Evolution time-line.
This chapter analyzes rock formation and dating methods in terms of what these two competing models would predict.
Man seems to possess an untiring preoccupation regarding the globe on which he resides. Some of this interest is beneficial to man, enhancing his lifestyle. However, some of the preoccupation is indicative of arrogance on man's part. Those who are obsessed with teaching that the earth, man, and every living thing on earth naturally began and through natural selection evolved are engaging in the zenith of gall (Gen. 1; 2). There is particular interest today relative to the age of the earth. Some geophysicists tell us the earth is 4.7 billions years old. Some theologians say the earth is only 6, 000 years old. Beloved, the simple answer regarding the age of the earth is, no man knows the exact age.
The earth is 6,000 years old position. The date 4004 B.C. is found in the marginal notes (Genesis one) of many King James Versions. This date was first placed in the King James Version by James Ussher in 1701. He arrived at this date by adding the lengths of the lives of the patriarchs as given in Genesis 5 and 11. In reality, this dating method is not infallible for a number of possible reasons. As far as the Bible is concerned, we can not date the earth with accuracy. It must be remembered that Genesis presents the earth as being created mature or aged (Gen. 1: 20 ff.).
The earth is 4.7 billions years old view. Scientists have employed a number of methods in trying to arrive at the age of the earth. The rate of erosion, rate of salt accumulation in the ocean, and the rate of decay of certain elements such as uranium, thorium, potassium, and rubidium. All of these methods including the "ore method," "meteorite method," and the dating of fossil remains are unreliable and contain many attendant variables.
There are a growing number of scientists who are concluding the earth is actually relatively young. They have studied population growth, the amount of meteoric dust on the earth's surface, the quantity of nickel in the oceans, and carbon-14 build up. Many of these scientists believe the earth is more in the range of 7, 000 years old. Beloved, one thing we do know is life begets life and creation implies a Creator: "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth" (Gen. 1: 1). In all honesty, there are matters scientists and theologians do not definitively know as to the age of the earth. True science and the Bible, though, do not conflict.
Earth has often been personified as a deity, in particular a goddess. In many cultures the mother goddess, also called the Mother Earth, is also portrayed as a fertility deity.
To the Greeks, Gaia was the goddess personifying the Earth. The Chinese Earth goddess Hou-T'u is similar to Gaia, the deification of the Earth. In Norse mythology, the Earth goddess Jord was the mother of Thor and the daughter of Annar. Ancient Egyptian mythology is different from that of other cultures because Earth is male, Geb, and sky is female, Nut. To the Aztec, earth was called Tonantzin—"our mother".
In many religions, accounts of creation of the earth exist, recalling a story involving the creation of the Earth by a supernatural deity or deities.
Although commonly thought to be a sphere, the Earth is actually an oblate spheroid. It bulges slightly at the equator and is slightly flattened at the poles, amounting to a difference of about 0.3 %. In the ancient past there were varying levels of belief in a flat Earth, with the Mesopotamian culture portraying the world as a flat disk afloat in an ocean. The spherical form of the Earth was suggested by early Greek philosophers; a belief espoused by Pythagoras. By the Middle Ages—as evidenced by thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas—European belief in a spherical earth was widespread. Prior to the introduction of space flight, belief in a spherical Earth was based on observations of the secondary effects of the Earth's shape and parallels drawn with the shape of other planets.
Cartography, the study and practice of map making, and vicariously geography, have historically been the disciplines devoted to depicting the Earth. Surveying, the determination of locations and distances, to a lesser extent navigation, the determination of position and direction, have developed alongside cartography and geography, providing and suitably quantifying the requisite information.
The technological developments of the latter half of the 20th century are widely considered to have altered the public's perception of the Earth. Before space flight, the popular image of Earth was of a green world. Science fiction artist Frank R. Paul provided perhaps the first image of a cloudless blue planet (with sharply defined land masses) on the back cover of the July 1940 issue of Amazing Stories, a common depiction for several decades thereafter.
Apollo 17's 1972 "Blue Marble" photograph of Earth from cislunar space became the current iconic image of the planet as a marble of cloud-swirled blue ocean broken by green-brown continents. A photo taken of a distant Earth by Voyager 1 in 1990 inspired Carl Sagan to describe the planet as a "Pale Blue Dot." Earth has also been described as a massive spaceship, with a life support system that requires maintenance, or as having a biosphere that forms one large organism.
Over the past two centuries a growing environmental movement has emerged that is concerned about humankind's effects on the Earth. The key issues of this socio-political movement are the conservation of natural resources, elimination of pollution, and the usage of land. Environmentalists advocate sustainable management of resources and stewardship of the natural environment through changes in public policy and individual behavior. Of particular concern is the large-scale exploitation of non-renewable resources. Changes sought by the environmental movements are often in conflict with commercial interests due to the significant additional costs associated with managing the environmental impact