What is the philosophical justification for the Cartesian method of doubt?

Decartes's logic led him to doubt that the things he experienced around him (i.e. the table in front of him) weren't real because he had had dreams where such things seemed real but weren't. In the end, he decided he could doubt everything but his own consciousness or existence. Everything around him might be an illusion, his physical body might be an illusion, but something was doing the thinking. This is generally summed up as "I think, therefore I am." Do you think he would have any reason to doubt that his apparent consciousness could also be an illusion? With our limited understanding of consciousness, is this a reasonable claim?

Is it normal to completely doubt yourself before a tryout and to think someone is better than you?

Oh yea we all have doubts but it's how you handle them. If you get too down on yourself you will perform badly. Just go out there and control what you can do.

What are some examples of doubt leading to the achievement of knowledge in history?

The desire to eliminate doubt, which is a form of curiosity, leads to many discoveries from finding out what is around the next corner to discovering new continents. Humans are curious critters driven to make discoveries.

What is the best remedy for self doubt and "What If" thinking?

Don't completely dismiss "what if" thinking, but curb it. Before you act, it's a good idea to weigh, "If I do this, what will happen?" That prevents people from making mistakes they can't undo. But only to the extent that you have considered the consequences of actions or speech. Beyond that, it is counter-productive. You have much more power than you think you do -- just with positive thinking, you can create a good day today, no matter how the morning starts. It's important that you do not let the way you feel when you wake up dictate how you feel throughout your day. The day's events are not set in stone. As each minute ticks by, you can take it and make it what you want it to be. Every morning, at the end of my shower, I quietly say this ritual: As I turn off the shower, "Thank you shower." As I put my hands on my shoulders to start pushing off the excess water, "Thank you fire and cold". As I brush off excess water before drying, "...water". As I take a deep breath, "...air". As I grab my towel just to wipe the excess water off my eyes, I feel my feet on the ground and say, "...earth..." As I grab my body oil that I will rub on before drying, "and spirit." Then as I take my towel to start drying, "Thank you Mom and Dad for my life. Thank you that I can wake up, that I can breathe. Thank you that I can smell and taste, see and comprehend, hear, speak, balance, feel and heal. Thank you for my home and for my family and friends." Then I dry and get out. This may sound excessive, but it establishes a positive attitude first thing in the morning. It's easy to say "be thankful..." but if you don't feel it, then it doesn't work. Avoid saying I, me and my when you speak. Listen to the other person and don't offer your opinion unless they ask for it. Do not complain. It takes two to argue. Never argue or try to verbally defend yourself. Be agreeable even if you're right. You can defuse arguments by not participating. When you become angry, chill out until you can relax again. Try. Then realize that everyone is different, they all make mistakes, do what you can to resolve the issue without become problematic yourself, and move on. If you have a depressive episode that "paralyzes" you, do something. Don't let your feeling stop you in your tracks. Do anything: laundry, moving things, cook, walk, just do something. You have to move. Also, remember the Serenity Prayer: My Dad used to say this a lot, and he lived it. You need to know when to let things go, and when to act on them: God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, Courage to change the things I can, And wisdom to know the difference.

How is doubt the key to knowledge in ethics and human sciences?

Knowledge is answers on a general basis, answers derive from questions, questions derive from doubt. Without doubt, you'd never ask upon any given topic, therefore, you wouldn't obtain new knowledge. For example, let's say you're 5 years old and aren't sure what would happen if you stick your finger in an electrical plug - you have doubts about the consequences, so you pop your finger in the plug. Once you manage to pull your finger back out, you know never to do that again, because it hurts; you've gained knowledge in the sense that you now know it's wrong to touch without knowing what might happen. Either that or your brain is fried. On an ethical stand point.. let's see.. ethics is the philosophy branch that is related to questions about morality.. in one of the subbranches of Ethics, you make the question that refers to what moral aspects people actually abide by. First off, philosophy itself is based upon questions and the never ending search for answers, meaning it's an infinite area of knowledge; it never ends, as questions appear alongside evolution; evolution is constant, therefore so is the growth of the unknown. The last sentence also accounts to human sciences; you study human behaviour, but with the technological advances we're making, the social changes, the human perspective in general that is in a continuous phase of transformation, it's only natural for new questions to be made on a regular basis. Change implies information that hasn't been acquired yet; be it the reason, be it what kind of change is being taken into account, be it who is part of the change, be it what it may, there will always be information we're not aware of. It's human nature to find logical explanations to everything we don't understand, hence doubt is followed by knowledge. - If we don't know something exists, we don't have doubts of its existence or non-existence, therefore, we don't ask ourselves any questions about it, therefore we acquire no new information. It is not until we find something we're ignorant about, do we start to fine answers.

Doubt is the key to knowledge? To what extent is this true with history and natural sciences?

The key to knowledge is openness and commitment >> Nothing else is needed

How can I tell the difference from a doubt and a lie on LA Noire?

A lie means you have hard evidence that the person isn't telling you the truth. Like if a person says they didn't know the guy, but you found a letter they wrote to that guy, that would be a lie, and you would show the evidence to the person you're questioning. Doubt means you think they're lying but have no proof (based solely on facial expressions). Doubt really means push them harder; truth means coax it out of them.

What is the legal difference between reasonable doubt and doubt?

Reasonable doubt is that it is totally reasonable to think that the crime happened a different way....a totally plausible way. Two guys walk into a bar, a person hears gunshots and sees them run out. The one on the left has the gun...it is REASONABLE to assume that he did the shooting, and he is charged. But during the trial he says his friend shot the guy and then tossed him the gun, and the friend backs up this story. That is REASONABLE doubt. A guy walks into a bar, a person hears gunshots and sees a man running with a gun. The police find the guy and during his trial he said that aliens came down and took possession of his body and made him do it......well some people believe in aliens, and some people believe an alien can come and take over your body...but it's not REASONABLE doubt, that is just doubt that there might be a one in a bazillion shot that there was an alien, and he took over the guys body...but it's not ANY doubt that gets a person not convicted, it is REASONABLE doubt.

What is hyperbolic doubt and how does that link to Cartesian Skepticism?

If you take "hyperbolic doubt" in the sense as you like to take it, then it is rather identical to Cartesian skepticism which claims that I have to doubt everything except my mental process of doubting. @macnevins: It's not secondary because from the the fact that he is in doubt of something he infers that he thinks. According to Descartes, doubting is a "modus cogitandi" or mode of thinking or, as we may call it today, a mental state. When I am in doubt of something, I cannot reasonably doubt that I am in doubt, Descartes says, and doubting is a mental state. So it is clear: When I am in doubt, I have a mental state, and whatever else I may be in doubt of (even of my doubting itself): as long as I am in doubt, it is clear to my mind that I have a mental state (namely that of doubting); so, it is undisputable and subjectively unobjectable, for Descartes, that he is a mental being ("res cogitans"). "Dubito, cogito, ergo sum."


some techniques are mentioned here - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recombinant_DNA tip - why dont u mention the subject you need help for, so pros in that subject need only open the message? you wont get nonsense replies then